Table of Contents

Viktor Schauberger, the Man; Questions for Science; What happened in America

2 - ENERGY Energy Today; Relative Energies; The Fateful Choice; But What is Energy?

3 - NEW DIMENSIONS OF ENERGY Ur-Primordial Energy; Sound as a Formative Force;
The Creative Energy-Vortex

4 - WHAT IS MOTION? The 'Original' Motion; Forms of Motion; Thesis, Antithesis and Synthesis; Phi or the 'Golden Section'; Magnetism and Electricism; Other Dimensions of Energy

5 - THE SUN The Light and Temperature of the Sun; The Sun as a Fertilising Entity

6 - THE ATMOSPHERIC ENVELOPE The Atmosphere; The Terrestrial Bio-Condenser;
The Development of Electricity; Storms, Water Vapour and Climate

7 - TEMPERATURE Other Forms of Temperature; Temperature - Health and Disease

8 - THE NATURE OF WATER Water - a Living Substance; The Anomaly Point of Water; Dielectrics and Electrolysis; Qualities of Water; The Temperature Gradient

9 - THE HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE The Full Hydrological Cycle; The Half Hydrological Cycle; Temperature Gradients and Nutrient Supply

10 - THE FORMATION OF SPRINGS Seepage and True Springs; The Rising of Spring Water; Energy from the Deep Sea

11 - FLOATING STONES AND THE STATIONARY TROUT Floating Stones; The Stationary Trout; Fishes from Eggs


13 - THE DYNAMICS OF FLOW Temperature Gradients during Flow;

The Formation of Vortices; The Formation of Bends; The Geostrophic Effect on Flow; The Effects of Conventional River Engineering; Hydro-Electric Power

14 - SYSTEMS OF WATER SUPPLY The Wooden Water Main; The Stuttgart Investigation; The Circulation of Blood

15 - THE PRODUCTION OF DRINKING WATER The Consequences of Chlorination and Fluoridation; The Spring Water Producing Device; The Storage of Water

16 - TREES AND LIGHT The Entity 'Tree'; The Bio-Magnetic Tree; Tree Types;
Trees - Mirrors of Light; Photosynthesis; Why Growth occurs at the Extremities

17 - FORESTRY - A NOBLE OR IGNOBLE ART? Contemporary Forestry; Monoculture;
Light- and Shade-Demanding Trees; Light-Induced Growth; Other Man-made Depradations

18 - THE METABOLISM OF THE TREE The Movement of Sap; Temperature Gradients in the Tree; The Tree as a Bio-condenser; Root Systems

19 - AGRICULTURE AND SOIL FERTILITY The 'Golden Plough'; Sun Ploughing; Of Cows and Scythes; The Pernicious Effects of Artificial Fertiliser; Biological Agriculture


21 - IMPLOSION The Biological Vacuum; The Repulsator; The Implosion Motor

The Trout Motor and the Biotechnical Submarine; The Klimator and the "Flying Saucer"


Excerpt from Chapter One "Who was Viktor Schauberger?"

In these districts there had been no interference in the balance of Nature and Viktor was thus able to observe events that are today inconceivable, and which no longer take place because of the enormous deterioration of the environment. It was here that he acquired the insights into the natural movement of water that resulted in the building of his first log flume. Here too he first became aware of other levitational energies found in water, for one day in the middle of a very cold winter, as he was about to cross over a fast-flowing mountain stream, he flushed a stationary trout from its lair as he sought a firm hold for his staff on the stream bed. Its lightning flash upstream immediately caused a number of questions to race through his mind:

"How did the trout actually manage to get to this spot -- and later I saw dozens of them in the same stream which was cut off by a 60 metre high waterfall about a kilometre downstream, where the water was atomised into a veil of mist?

"How was it able to flee upstream like a streak of greased lightning in mockery of all the laws of gravity? How was it possible for this fish to stand so motionlessly, only steering itself with slight movements of its tail-fins, in this wildly torrential flow, which made my staff shake so much that I could hardly hang onto it?

"What forces enabled the trout to overcome its own body-weight so effortlessly and quickly and at the same time overcome the specific weight of the heavy water flowing against it? Why didn't the water freeze even during periods of severe frost with temperatures below -30oC?"

While Viktor undoubtedly had an especial talent for observation, a penetrating power of perception undimmed by preconceptions, he also developed what might be called an active consciousness, an ability to go beyond the merely visual in search of what lay behind a given phenomenon. This taught him a great deal and how this ability gradually evolved, as he explained:

"The Schaubergers' principal preoccupation was the conservation of the forest and wild game, and even in earliest youth my fondest desire was to understand Nature, and thus to come closer to the truth; a truth that I was unable to discover either at school or in church.

"In this quest I was thus drawn time and time again up into the forest. I could sit for hours on end and watch the water flowing by without ever becoming tired or bored. At the time I was still unaware that in water the greatest secret lay hidden. Nor did I know that water was the carrier of life or the ur-source of what we call consciousness. Without any preconceptions, I simply let my gaze fall on the water as it flowed past. It was only years later that I came to realise that running water attracts our consciousnesses like a magnet and draws a small part of it along in its wake. It is a force that can act so powerfully that one temporarily loses consciousness and involuntarily falls asleep.

"As time passed I began to play a game with water's secret powers; I surrendered my so-called free consciousness and allowed the water to take possession of it for a while. Little by little this game became very earnest, because I realised that one could detach one's own consciousness from the body and attach it to that of the water.

"When my own consciousness was eventually returned to me, then the water's deeply concealed psyche often revealed the most extraordinary things to me. As a result of this investigation a researcher was born, who could dispatch his consciousness on a voyage of discovery, as it were. In this way I was able to experience things that had escaped other people's notice, because they were unaware that a human being is able to send forth his free consciousness into those places the eyes cannot see.

"By practising this blindfolded vision, I eventually developed a bond with mysterious Nature, whose essential being I then slowly learnt to perceive and understand."

Water, forests, natural energies and their generation were ever his passionate concern. In our present way of looking at things he would probably be considered one of the world's first 'greenies'; Dr.Richard St.Barbe Baker, founder of 'The Men of the Trees' in 1922, and Viktor's friend, being another.

Viktor had tremendous foresight and an enormous capacity for writing, reputedly having composed many, many thousands of pages. At times, apparently in a trance-like state, he wrote for hours on his typewriter with no idea of what he had written until finally reading it at the end. Amongst other things, he set down all that he saw would inevitably happen, if we did not mend our ways and change our whole approach to the environment, both technologically and conceptually. All the various crises that are today engulfing humanity, he foresaw as long ago as 1930. When questioned on his predictions, he answered very simply, saying that, "For a person who lives 100 years in the future, the present is no surprise."

In the late 1920s as a result of the successful operation of Viktor's Steyrling log-flume, Prof.Philipp Forchheimer was asked by the Austrian Government to investigate his unusual theories. Through their collaboration, Forchheimer gradually became aware of the truth of Viktor's ideas, eventually insisting that Viktor put all his discoveries down on paper, for he thought these theories were not only valid, but extremely valuable. Forchheimer later confided that he was delighted to have retired, because he would now be relieved of the humiliating task of telling his students that he had been teaching them rubbish for the last forty-five years.

With the cooperation of Prof.Wilhelm Exner, President of the Austrian Academy of Science and inventor of the Exner electroscope, a treatise of Viktor Schauberger's entitled "Turbulence", which described the braking function of vortices and their relation to water temperature, was placed under seal and on deposit at the Austrian Academy of Science on January 1st, 1930. This was done, not only to ensure the precedence of Viktor Schauberger's theories on water movement, but also to safeguard them for some time in the future. While stressing its value, Forchheimer considered there to be no point in publishing it at the time, because the hydrological world was not ready. The science of hydraulics would first have to change its values and way of thinking before these trail-breaking concepts could be taken seriously. It wasn't until 1974 that this document was released to Viktor's son, Walter Schauberger.

Forchheimer did change his views later, however, and saw to it that Viktor's pioneering theories on temperature and its effect on the movement of water were published in 1930-31 in a series of articles in Die Wasserwirtschaft, the Austrian Journal of Hydrology. This showed Forchheimer to be all that a true scientist should be, and rarely is. It demonstrated the honesty and humility of a sincere academic who was prepared to accept that his former ideas had been wrong and that current thinking could be changed; that there was another way of looking at things.

Viktor's aim was always to try to perceive the dynamic reality behind what he saw as physical illusion. He claimed, and rightly so, that by and large we human beings are extremely superficial, looking for and only seeing direct relations between cause and effect, whereas Nature always moves indirectly. But worse than this, in our ignorance of the unseen dynamic behind the seen manifestation, we mistake the effect for the cause, greatly compounding this error by failing to see that an effect becomes the cause for a further effect in an endless chain of causes and effects. As Viktor comments:

"Our thinking is inconsistent with what we actually see. The eye is a perfect, natural organ. The seen image is a reaction phenomenon. Using an artificial optical apparatus the same effect, for example, can only be obtained by a roundabout way, by means of a negative. The eye, on the other hand, immediately presents us with the diapositive, namely the true image.

"Our sight constitutes an unconscious, automatic transformation process, through which the negative image -- like a photographic negative -- i.e. the effect, is transformed into a positive one, like a diapositive colour slide. Our thinking, however, is really a purely individual, conscious process and therefore learnable. If our thinking is to attain the same perfection as our seeing, then we must change our way of thinking and learn to see reality, not as an action, but as a reaction. Perfect thought lies in the apprehension of the correct reaction, for before the eye can show us the positive, it must first transform the negative and in a certain manner must break up what it records. What we see therefore, is the turning inside out of what we receive. What our mind grasps in this way must be re-formed and re-thought if we wish to attain what we strive for."

Our direct mental approach towards the understanding and investigation of natural phenomena; our present materialistic and scientifically ingrained view that only the physically palpable and measurable represents the true reality, has lead to greater and greater confusion and the need to elaborate more and more complex theories to explain the various functions of the physical world. Our great omission has been our total disregard and our failure to come to grips in depth with the more ephemeral, unseen, yet fundamental energetic causalities. Like the negative mentioned in the quotation above, these energies manifest themselves only indirectly, the physical constructs of the outer physical world being a positive reflection of their respective functions. What we perceive as the foundation of physical reality -- a reality to which we have ascribed laws -- is therefore only half of the truth, for in their dynamic these formative magnitudes conform to a sublime inner law of energetic reciprocities:

"Nature is not served by rigid laws, but by rhythmical, reciprocal processes. Nature uses none of the preconditions of the chemist or the physicist for the purposes of evolution. Nature excludes all fire on principle for purposes of growth; therefore all contemporary machines are unnatural and constructed according to false premises. Nature avails herself of the biodynamic form of motion through which the biological prerequisite for the emergence of life is provided. Its purpose is to ur-procreate 'higher' conditions of matter out of the originally inferior raw materials, which afford the evolutionally older, or the numerically greater rising generation, the possibility of a constant capacity to evolve, for without any growing and increasing reserves of energy there would be no evolution or development. This results first and foremost in the collapse of the so-called Law of the Conservation of Energy, and in further consequence the Law of Gravity, and all other dogmatics lose any rational or practical basis."

In Viktor's view Western science and education generally left much to be desired. Our civilisation suffered from a myopic compartmentalisation of the mind, which prevented a detached overview, a synthesis of what was observed:

"Today's science thinks too primitively; indeed it could be said that its thinking is an octave too low. It has still not ventured far enough into the realm of energy, and its attitude has remained purely materialistic. For this reason it is principally to blame for the state of affairs we are experiencing today. In all probability, this development was necessary, for how else should a misguided humanity perceive the true interdependencies?

"Without doubt, therefore, there is a definite intention to teach young people upside-down methods of working with which they have to mis-earn their daily bread. That is to say, instead of moving forwards, they go backwards all the more rapidly in step with the improvements in the contrary methods of motion. For only thus can today's teaching principles flourish."

In contrast to contemporary science, Viktor saw will and spirit as the principal causative forces of physical existence. They work through the agency of various lower orders and magnitudes of energy belonging to the 4th and 5th dimensions, i.e. through those more subtle, non-spacial dimensions of being that are inherent, but are not perceived, in the three dimensional world to which we are accustomed. Of ethereal nature and endowed with very high frequencies and formative potencies, they could also be termed 'potentialities', which in their extremely sensitive and unstable state of energetic equilibrium await the right stimulus and occasion to manifest themselves. In being able to speak of these higher and therefore more powerfully and profoundly structuring dimensions of reality, Viktor's own comprehension of them must have been at the level of the 6th dimension, a level where the encapsulation and understanding of a given concept or phenomenon is both simultaneous and total. Perhaps this might be termed the dimension of 'throughth' or pure truth, a crystal-clear transparency, a complete comprehension of the wholeness devoid of all uncertainty and unclarity.

From 1930-1933 Viktor Schauberger worked with systems for water regeneration and the production of high-quality drinking water for which patents were applied in 1934. This rather cumbersome prototype was later followed by an egg-shaped device which was much smaller and far more efficient. When tested to its extreme power, however, it developed such powerful internal suction that even mercury seals (of extremely densely packed molecular structure) were unable to withstand the enormous suction generated and leaked into the water undergoing treatment. Despite the fact that this leakage occurred only when extremely high vacuum effects were present, which were absent under normal conditions of operation, the Government argued through its consultant Professor Diering that the public could not be exposed to the hazard of mercury poisoning. Laying heavy emphasis on this, all further use of the machine for the regeneration and production of spring-quality water and super-distilled water was forbidden. Indeed Viktor Schauberger's machine had evidently offended somebody in high places, for it was confiscated and destroyed by the Austrian police.

Always a thorn in the side of scientific and government institutions, Viktor's long battle to save both the Rhine and the Danube from total ruin was ultimately lost through their rejection of his practical suggestions. In early 1932 he wrote a paper about the rehabilitation of the Danube detailing the measures that needed to be taken in order to reinstate it as the magnificent river it had been in days of yore. This paper was included as a separate chapter in "The Danube", a study undertaken by the International Danube Commission and consisting of submissions from the Danube's various contiguous countries.

When officialdom discovered with horror that Viktor's contribution had been incorporated into this major work, the whole edition was recalled, destroyed and republished in October 1932 omitting the offending article, disregarding the publishing costs of the original edition which amounted to over 100,000 schillings -- a very large sum at the time.

Whatever might have been thought of Viktor Schauberger in Austria, word of his abilities and the statements contained in his new book, Our Senseless Toil -- the Source of the World Crisis(17), evidently reached others ears including those of Adolf Hitler. At a time when the relations between Austria and Germany were at an all-time low, Viktor Schauberger was summoned to an audience with the Reichschancellor in Berlin. Special papers were arranged and all the documentation carried out within one day. Suddenly Viktor Schauberger left for Berlin and a meeting with Hitler, who greeted him warmly as a fellow countryman, telling him that he had studied all the reports about Viktor's work thoroughly and was very impressed with what he had learned.

Thirty minutes had been allocated for the discussions, which Prof.Max Planck had been requested to attend as scientific adviser shortly before he was rudely deposed from his position as Privy Counsellor. This exchange of views eventually lasted 11 hours, during which Schauberger explained the destructive action of contemporary technology and its inevitable consequences. He contrasted this with all the processes of natural motion and temperature, of the vital relation between trees, water and soil productivity, indeed all the things he considered had to be thoroughly understood and practised in order to create a sustainable and viable society.

When Viktor had finished his explanations, Max Planck, who had remained silent, was asked his opinion about Viktor's natural theories. His response was the remarkable and revealing statement that "Science has nothing to do with Nature". Pausing for a moment to take in this astonishing admission, Viktor then referred to the proposed four-year plan, the so-called Goering Plan, stating that not only was the time frame was far too short, but if instituted it would gradually undermine and ultimately destroy Germany's biological foundations. As a result, the Third Reich would last only ten instead of the boasted 1,000 years. (Viktor was not far out in his estimate!)

During the earlier part of the discussion, Hitler had been enthusiastic, but he became greatly perturbed at what he had just heard and ordered his technical and economic advisers, Messrs.Keppler and Wiluhn, to discuss with Schauberger what could be done. Once outside the door these two men demanded to know how Viktor had got in there in the first place. Angered at their truculently condescending air, he replied "Through the same door I've just come out of!" Seeing that his ideas had no hope of acceptance, and leaving them gaping, he returned to his hotel and left for Austria the following morning.

Keppler and Wiluhn, however, were to get their revenge later, after the Anschluss on March 13th, 1938.

Despite the new order after the Anschluss and the Sword of Damocles now hanging over his head, by now hardened to setbacks and with indomitable courage and a mind never still for a moment, Viktor quietly continued his research. His main drive was to investigate phenomena and correlations that interested him. Once he had discovered that something worked, he noted the fact, and then got on with the next project. He was never very interested in commercialising what he discovered.

As ever, he pursued ways of generating energy with water through the interaction of complementary, but opposite forms of energy. Examples of this were heat and cold, suction and pressure, electricity and magnetism, in each case the opposites combine to create a unity, a wholeness through their synthesising, reciprocal interaction. He eventually came to realise that if a suction effect was ingeniously engaged first, and then pressure introduced behind it on the same axis, an extremely powerful system of propulsion could be created.

According to his customary practice, in 1937-38 Viktor applied for patents for these new ideas. Once again he was the victim of deceit and his ideas were usurped, for in a later letter to his son Walter he wrote that copies of the preliminary application had been fraudulently obtained by Prof.Ernst Heinkel, the famous aircraft designer, through a firm of patent attorneys, Lehmann-Harlens in Berlin. By mining the information contained in this document, Heinkel obtained insights into how a jet-engine could be produced, even though he misinterpreted its findings; his first prototype exploded due to his lack of proper understanding. With a certain absence of principle, he then sought Viktor's collaboration in the project. Although some initial discussion eventually took place, Viktor did not cooperate, having become aware of what Heinkel had done, and further contact between the two men ceased. Using his ill-gotten gains, however, Heinkel persevered with his research, which culminated in the construction of the first successful jet-plane, its first flight being on August 27th, 1939.

Although Heinkel never had the honesty to reveal the source of the ideas for his invention, keeping all the kudos for himself, this jet plane was nevertheless built as a direct result of Viktor's theories. Viktor Schauberger is therefore the real father of the present jet age. He even went as far as to state that in order to develop and build fast-flying, supersonic aircraft successfully, the bodily forms of deep-sea fish should be copied. Today's 'stealth bombers' very much emulate these forms.

In 1939 Viktor's personal research virtually came to an end, all the materials he needed being appropriated for war production. In 1941, however, he was summoned by Air Marshal Ernst Udet to discuss the growing crisis of energy production and means of solving it. Premises were subsequently set up near Augsburg for research and development, all of which came to nothing partly due to the death of Udet and partly because it was bombed by the Allies in 1942.

In 1943, despite his incapacitating war wounds and 58 years of age, Viktor was declared fit for active duty and was inducted into the Waffen-SS, very much under duress. He came under the control of Heinrich Himmler, who forced him into research to develop a new secret weapon. Provided with suitable accommodation at Schloss Schonbrunn, the nearby Mauthausen Concentration Camp to supply the workforce of prisoner engineers, Viktor was threatened with his life if he did not comply with orders and carry out this research.

In spite of these threats, however, Viktor put his foot down and demanded from the SS Command the absolute right to select the various engineers he needed. He further demanded that any technicians he chose were to be removed entirely from the camp, fed properly, dressed in normal civilian clothes and billeted in civilian accommodation, otherwise they would be unproductive. As he explained, people who live in fear of their lives and under great emotional stress could work neither consistently nor creatively. Surprisingly the SS agreed and so Viktor selected somewhere between twenty and thirty engineers, craftsmen and tradesman from Mauthausen, to be accommodated in various houses near the plant.

When they were all assembled, Viktor exhorted them to work as hard as they could, but under no circumstances were they to attempt to escape, otherwise his own life would be forfeit. They set to work with a will and, while not understanding what Viktor was trying to achieve, they nevertheless carried out his instructions faithfully. Two machines were eventually built, one called a 'Repulsator' and the other a 'Repulsine', reflecting their forces of recoil. Accurate information about them is difficult to obtain, because after the end of the War all top-secret information was confiscated by the Allies -- the Russians, French, English and Americans -- and is therefore no longer available to the general public.

Both machines operated with the densifying forces of implosion, which are far more powerful than those of explosion. This is why Viktor Schauberger was eventually taken to the United States in 1958, because the Americans obviously knew that he had been working on such prototypes, the Russians too, since they had thoroughly ransacked his apartment in Vienna after they occupied the city. Viktor Schauberger was lucky, however, because due to the bombing of Vienna, he had been moved by the SS, together with his team of engineers, to Leonstein in Upper Austria. Therefore at the end of the war in May 1945 he came under the jurisdiction of the American forces of occupation.

In Leonstein Viktor was placed in protective custody for six months by the Americans and quartered inside a doubly-fenced and guarded perimeter. This was done partly to glean information about his involuntary, though to him useful wartime research at Mauthausen and Leonstein, and partly to prevent his abduction by the Russians. For Viktor however, this was a time of reflection and reassessment of his future.

During this immediately postwar period food was still extremely scarce and many people were suffering from malnutrition. When he was ultimately released, eventually moving to Salzburg in late 1946, he then set about applying his wide knowledge to agriculture and the systems of cultivation then in use. In collaboration with Franz Rosenberger, he was able to demonstrate that significant increases in productivity could be achieved using the knowledge he had acquired in Bulgaria before the war. All progress in this area subsequently being blocked by corrupt politicians in 1949, Viktor then returned to his study of implosion, energy generation and water movement, trying with his limited funds to pick up the threads of his earlier research, culminating in a scientific investigation and vindication of his theories on the natural flow of water at Stuttgart Technical University in 1952 under the direction of Prof. Franz Popel.

With enquiring mind and tenacity of purpose, Viktor continued to work on his various devices. Aloys Kokaly, the publisher of Implosion, a magazine devoted to Viktor Schauberger's theories, and a former corporal in the Waffen-SS who had managed by devious means to procure materials for Viktor's research at Schloss Schonbrunn, asked him why he was still working so hard, to which Viktor replied:

"I must furnish those who would protect or save life, with an energy source, which produces energy so cheaply that nuclear fission will not only be uneconomical, but ridiculous. This is the task I have set myself in what little life I have left."

The product of this last personal effort is the home-power generator, which due to Viktor's very limited pensioner's funds and its resulting crude, unsophisticated construction, did not function as well as he had hoped, for as it transpired, this machine was an unfortunate compromise between the geometry of mechanics and that of organics. It was a miserable culmination to the life's work of this quite remarkable man.

His overriding desire was to provide present and future generations with the ability in terms of knowledge and machines with which to usher in and sustain a golden age of prosperity, peace and harmony. His chief problem was always to find honest and unselfish people to help in the development and production of the various apparatuses needed to bring this about. In many instances his trust was sadly misplaced, as illustrated in extracts from a letter of the 4th February 1958 to a friend, a certain Mr. 'R', about 71 months before Viktor died.

He had had no appreciation or support from the government or anyone else in Austria. So when he was eventually approached by Americans who expressed an enthusiastic interest in developing his theories on implosion, Viktor felt that at last something positive would happen; for America was such a powerful country with tremendous entrepreneurial energy. He was by this time quite exasperated at the behaviour of Europeans and what he had suffered at their hands, and in a conversation with Aloys Kokaly, Viktor, somewhat embittered, declared:

"An American aircraft consortium offered me 3.5 million dollars; a similar offer was made by Canadian interests. You didn't want it in Europe, so now you'll have to get it back from America expensively!"

This all came to pass, but as we shall see, nothing ever came back to Europe, nor to the rest of the world for that matter. This has been the greatest loss and misfortune for humanity at large.

Questions for Science


-- What is it that keeps the Earth floating in space?
-- Why does a top stand upright when it is spun from the side?
-- What is temperature? What is heat? What is cold? What is energy?
-- What is evaporation? What is vaporisation? What is dissolution? What is combination?
-- What is absorption? On what effects are these processes founded?


-- Why do the magnetic lines of energy run from south to north?
-- Why does the Earth rotate from west to east?


-- What serves the sun as a carrier of light and heat, if, in the view of our learned scientists, space is a vacuum?
-- Why do gases condense with a decrease in temperature? Why don't the fiery gases of the Sun, with supposed temperatures of over 6000oC, stream out into space?
-- Why is the light and heat in the tropics more diffuse and at the poles the Sun's light more intense and its radiant heat less?


-- Why doesn't the Earth's warm air rise? Why is it so cold at the top of a mountain, i.e. nearer the sun?
-- Why in our houses is it warmer nearer the ceiling and colder at the floor, when an artificial source of heat is used?
-- Why does marble expand with heat and why doesn't it contract again with cold?


-- Why is the desert so dead despite all the heat?
-- Why do damp tiled roofs dry out from the eaves towards the ridge?


-- Why does the groundwater in walls rise far above the surface of the ground?
-- Why don't wooden posts rot under water, but above it always?
-- Why can rising cold water pierce through the hardest rock? Why does water pulsate and and breathe?
-- Why does groundwater manage to remain on the sides of mountains?
-- Why, growing colder and heavier, does it rise upwards? Why does it frequently spring from high peaks?


-- Why do west-to-east flowing watercourses fertilise their banks?
-- Why are the banks of east-to-west flowing rivers so barren?
-- Why are the banks of south-to-north flowing watercourses fertile on one side only?
-- Why do rivers flowing into cold seas migrate laterally to the north? Why do deltas and estuaries develop?
-- Why does a trout stand still in a raging torrent, as if by magic?


-- Why is the water at the poles warmer at the bottom?
-- Why is the sunlit surface at the poles so icily cold?
-- Why doesn't the warmer, lighter bottom-water of the sea rise upwards?
-- Why are the water temperatures at the equator so warm?
-- Why is it that it gets colder with increasing depth?
-- Why does it get warmer again below the boundary layer of +4oC?
-- Why does life below this boundary layer begin anew?
-- Why does the salt content of the seas vary?
-- Why do herrings migrate northwards in winter? Why do deep-sea fish glow?
-- Why can the warm Gulf Stream push the cold seawater aside and wend its way for thousands of kilometres over mountains and valleys in a reversed temperature gradient without the assistance of a mechanical gradient?


-- Why do cold-blooded animals carry fever-inducing poison? Why does a cold fever occur in the tropics?
-- Why does a warm fever arise from a chill? What is fever anyway?
-- Why is our body-temperature subnormal when climbing a mountain and above normal as we descend?
-- Why does the heart beat in our breast? Who gives this muscle its impulse to move?
-- Where is the motor for this pump? Why does blood circulate in our blood vessels?
-- Why do the fluids in a chicken's egg circulate without a heart?
-- Why do we breathe day and night, when asleep and even when totally unconscious?
-- Does the heart beat because we breathe, or do we breathe because the heart beats?


-- Why have light-demanding timbers a thick bark and shade-demanders only a thin one?
-- Where is the heart of a plant?